Chapter 1. Introduction.
Hypothesises on impact of explosion of supernova
stars on life development on Earth and biosphere have been discussed
for a long time already. In particular a famous austrophisisian I.
S. Shklovsky wrote in 70-s:
"Ö flashes of supernova stars play not only an important
role for origin and evolution of life in Universe (formation of heavy
elements, level of hard radiation, leading to mutation), but also
may be an initial clause of generation of animate substance out of
a dead oneĒ. (3, page 75)
"Ö at maximum point of brightness of a supernova star of
second type-its color temperature reaches about 40 000 C 0 , Ö main
radiation Öis concentrated in ultra-violet part of specter. The stream
of its radiation, which is able to ionize the upper layers of Earth
atmosphere, was ~ 1000 erg/sm2 , that is one thousand times more than
the stream that comes from the Sun. And thatís why ionization of the
upper layers of atmosphere increased in tens of times.Ē (4, page 245)
As itís known from radiation biology the frequency of mutations grows
in case of irradiation of animals and plants by means of hard radia-tion.
A great amount of energy is exuded during supernova star blast in
the form of electromagnetic radiation in broad frequency diapason.
ď At the peak of its brightness the supernova star in its radiation
power can be compared with the whole galaxy, containing up to one
hundred mil-liard ordinary stars!Ē (6, page 108).
ď Supernova stars of type 1Öeradiate
within this period about 1040 erg/secondď (8, page 130.)
On photo supernova stars, flashed
in far galaxies, are shown.
Within the period of a flash and
some months after it, a supernova star may become the third source
of radiation for Earth in its power (if com-pared with the Sun and
the Moon). Some supernova stars were seen even in the afternoon. At
night they would have created illumination 100 hun-dred times more
than the full Moon. The intensity of radiation of super-nova stars
grows sharply within some tens of days and than decreases within several
years on exponent.
Curves of brightness of supernova
stars in our Galaxy. (6, page 107)
ďSpecter of supernova star is quite unlike specters of other stars".
(8, page 131)
Thatís why itís quite possible to suppose that radiation impact
of super-nova stars on Earthís biomass should be specific.
Supernova star explosions in our Galaxy happen in average once in
"Flashes of supernova stars in present state of Galaxy Ė is a
rare phe-nomenon, that takes place in average not often than once
in one hundred years". (9, page 133)
"Flashes of supernova stars in Galaxy happen rarely. From all
the star flashes, somehow noticed during the last two thousand years,
one can say with certainty that only less than ten of them can be
considered to be flashes.Ē (8, page128)
Unfortunately, astronomers as well as historians have no joint opinion
on all the dates of observance of supernova star flashes in our Galaxy.
Lack of historical information results in definite difficulties with
classifi-cation (new or supernova) of some appeared stars.
I. S. Shklovsky dates back supernova star flashes for our era in the
fol-lowing way: - 185, 872, 1006, 1054, 1181, 1572, 1604, 1667 A.
M. Zamaletdinov gives the following dates for our era: - 185, 393,
668, 902, 1006, 1054, 1181, 1230, 1572, and 1604.
And the Vifliemskaya Star is also added to that list Ė 1 A.D. F. U.Zigel
tells about one more star:
ďIn July 134 B. S. Giparh suddenly noticed a bright unknown star
in Scorpion constellation. It was the first new star, discovered in
Europe.Ē (5. Page 18)
(So far, we shall consider this star to be a supernova one. The
work with material will show to what type we are to refer it.)
The above-mentioned dates are accepted on the basis of chronology
of I. Skaliger Ė D. Petavius. I. Newton, E. Johnson, N. Morozov and
others question his chronology truth. Contemporary researchers also
treat it not equally.
We shall not judge who is right of them and who is not and that is
why let us do the following. We shall take into consideration all
the dates of observance of supernova star flashes for our era from
all the sources. We suppose that if in Skaligerís chronology there
are system errors than they will equally impact the dates of supernova
star flashes and the dates of ethnogenesis explosion. Such a supposition
is possible at the first stage of work, because we are interested
not in flash date so far but in the connec-tion of such phenomena
as ďsupernova and ethnogenesisĒ.
As we have already touched the question of dating of flashes of super-nova
stars itís necessary to specify some things.
In fact star explosion took place many thousands of years ago. And
watching the appearance of a new star a historical observer states
only the moment of electromagnetic radiation coming from this explosion
to the Earth.
It is hardly probable that the appearance of a new star is noticed
within the first twenty-four hours. I. S. Shklovsky states that Chinese
as-tronomers with their developed system of astronomic observations
noticed a supernova star of the year 1054 only on the 4th of July,
but noticed it one Ėtwo weeks earlier. There is no evidence of the
fact that Japanese noticed that star on that very day. The state of
the atmosphere (full cloudiness, ty-phoon, dusty storms) influences
the precision of fixing the dates of new star appearance.
The so-called human factor could also influence it. F. U. Zigel writes
the following about the circumstances of opening the supernova star
of the year 1572 (supernova star Tiho Brage):
ď Having returned to Denmark in 1570 Tiho took interest in alchemy
and seemed to have forgotten about astronomy. But a sudden sky phenomenon
made him to devote his life to stars. In November 1572 in the constellation
of Jupiter a new star flashed which reached the brightness of Jupiter.Ē
(5, page 28)
A question arises. Could a person, so concentrated on other business,
do systematical astronomic observations (especially such laborious
as to check all the stars every night)? Quite doubtful. It is logical
to suppose that in this case we have not an exact date. Dates of observations
of supernova stars of earlier centuries, evidently, can have an even
greater degree error.
Such a situation causes additional difficulties but there is nothing
left but to work with this material. And now let us turn to the dissertation
of L. N. Gumilev ďEthnogenesis and Earthís BiosphereĒ.
One of the main topics of this work is held in the answer to the fol-lowing
question: ďWhy does such a phenomenon when that or this nation suddenly
(in accordance to historical measures) becomes dominated among others
and then disappears from history take place? What deter-mines the
appearance of a great number of people- goal-oriented and able to
bear extra-stresses, e.i. passionaries,- from people earlier being
quite passive? What is the initial clause of passionary explosion?
I would like to point out one more very important statement in L.
N. Gumilevís work, on which we shall concentrate in further investigation.
Gumilev defines ethnos as energetic phenomenon.
ďÖ we have the right to define ethnos as an energetic phenomenon.Ē
(1, page 393)
ďÖ ethnogenesis Ėis an energetic process, and passionarity Ė is the
effect of the form of energy which feeds ethnogenis.Ē(1, page 387)
Gumilev speaks about ethnos as a field structure having its own rhythm,
i.e. fluctuation frequency.
L. N. Gumilev defines period of
ethnos life within 1200 Ė 1500 years.
While working with historical material L. N. Gumilev stated that the
fact when one ethnos suddenly becomes dominated takes place not within
one geographic sphere but looks like a continuous line spreading for
thou-sands of kilometers.
Trying to define passionary drive L. N. Gumilev suggests a hypothesis
on alien i.e. cosmic origin of ethnogenisis reason:
"Speaking about possible sources of passionary sources we
have not re-jected just one hypothesis Ė cosmic radiation. But at
present level of knowledge on near space this hypothesis can not be
strictly proved, but at the same time there are no fact contradicting
it.Ē (1, page 583)
ď When one examines areas of passionary explosions, than we have an
impression that an Earth is surrounded by a ray, Ö, and the spreading
of passionary drive is limited by planetís curve.Ē (1, page 392)
ďZones of passionary drive Ė are narrow stripes, their width is about
300 km in latitude direction and somewhat broader in meridian direction,
ap-proximately by 0,5 of Planetís circumference.Ē (1, page 412)
ďÖinitial moments of ethnogenisÖcoincide in time and are situated
in regions stretched along meridians or on parallels, or at an angle
to them, but always as a continuous stripe.Ē
One can clearly see on
the map that axes of passionary drive resem-bles the trajectory of
Moonís shadow during central Sun darkening.
Trajectory of Moonís shadow during Sun darkening has the width up
to 300 km.
It is necessary to point out that not only appearance of these phenom-ena
but also such a parameter as width coincides.
For further work we shall not need ethnogenesis explosion that took
place in B. C. and that is why letís draw up a new map on which we
shall mark the explosions happened from 1 till 13th centuries (in
accordance to Skaligerís chronology) and defined by L. N. Gumilev.
1. Passionary drive of 1 centure.
2. Passionary drive of 6 centure.
3. Passionary drive of 8 centure.
4. Passionary drive of 11 centure.
5. Passionary drive of 13 centure.