Chapter 1. Introduction.

Hypothesises on impact of explosion of supernova stars on life development on Earth and biosphere have been discussed for a long time already. In particular a famous austrophisisian I. S. Shklovsky wrote in 70-s:
" flashes of supernova stars play not only an important role for origin and evolution of life in Universe (formation of heavy elements, level of hard radiation, leading to mutation), but also may be an initial clause of generation of animate substance out of a dead one. (3, page 75)

" at maximum point of brightness of a supernova star of second type-its color temperature reaches about 40 000 C 0 , main radiation is concentrated in ultra-violet part of specter. The stream of its radiation, which is able to ionize the upper layers of Earth atmosphere, was ~ 1000 erg/sm2 , that is one thousand times more than the stream that comes from the Sun. And thats why ionization of the upper layers of atmosphere increased in tens of times. (4, page 245)
As its known from radiation biology the frequency of mutations grows in case of irradiation of animals and plants by means of hard radia-tion.
A great amount of energy is exuded during supernova star blast in the form of electromagnetic radiation in broad frequency diapason.
At the peak of its brightness the supernova star in its radiation power can be compared with the whole galaxy, containing up to one hundred mil-liard ordinary stars! (6, page 108).

Supernova stars of type 1eradiate within this period about 1040 erg/second (8, page 130.)

On photo supernova stars, flashed in far galaxies, are shown.

Within the period of a flash and some months after it, a supernova star may become the third source of radiation for Earth in its power (if com-pared with the Sun and the Moon). Some supernova stars were seen even in the afternoon. At night they would have created illumination 100 hun-dred times more than the full Moon. The intensity of radiation of super-nova stars grows sharply within some tens of days and than decreases within several years on exponent.

Curves of brightness of supernova stars in our Galaxy. (6, page 107)

Specter of supernova star is quite unlike specters of other stars".
(8, page 131)

Thats why its quite possible to suppose that radiation impact of super-nova stars on Earths biomass should be specific.
Supernova star explosions in our Galaxy happen in average once in 100-200 years.

"Flashes of supernova stars in present state of Galaxy is a rare phe-nomenon, that takes place in average not often than once in one hundred years". (9, page 133)
"Flashes of supernova stars in Galaxy happen rarely. From all the star flashes, somehow noticed during the last two thousand years, one can say with certainty that only less than ten of them can be considered to be flashes. (8, page128)

Unfortunately, astronomers as well as historians have no joint opinion on all the dates of observance of supernova star flashes in our Galaxy. Lack of historical information results in definite difficulties with classifi-cation (new or supernova) of some appeared stars.
I. S. Shklovsky dates back supernova star flashes for our era in the fol-lowing way: - 185, 872, 1006, 1054, 1181, 1572, 1604, 1667 A. D..
M. Zamaletdinov gives the following dates for our era: - 185, 393, 668, 902, 1006, 1054, 1181, 1230, 1572, and 1604.
And the Vifliemskaya Star is also added to that list 1 A.D. F. U.Zigel tells about one more star:

In July 134 B. S. Giparh suddenly noticed a bright unknown star in Scorpion constellation. It was the first new star, discovered in Europe. (5. Page 18)
(So far, we shall consider this star to be a supernova one. The work with material will show to what type we are to refer it.)
The above-mentioned dates are accepted on the basis of chronology of I. Skaliger D. Petavius. I. Newton, E. Johnson, N. Morozov and others question his chronology truth. Contemporary researchers also treat it not equally.
We shall not judge who is right of them and who is not and that is why let us do the following. We shall take into consideration all the dates of observance of supernova star flashes for our era from all the sources. We suppose that if in Skaligers chronology there are system errors than they will equally impact the dates of supernova star flashes and the dates of ethnogenesis explosion. Such a supposition is possible at the first stage of work, because we are interested not in flash date so far but in the connec-tion of such phenomena as supernova and ethnogenesis.
As we have already touched the question of dating of flashes of super-nova stars its necessary to specify some things.
In fact star explosion took place many thousands of years ago. And watching the appearance of a new star a historical observer states only the moment of electromagnetic radiation coming from this explosion to the Earth.
It is hardly probable that the appearance of a new star is noticed within the first twenty-four hours. I. S. Shklovsky states that Chinese as-tronomers with their developed system of astronomic observations noticed a supernova star of the year 1054 only on the 4th of July, but noticed it one two weeks earlier. There is no evidence of the fact that Japanese noticed that star on that very day. The state of the atmosphere (full cloudiness, ty-phoon, dusty storms) influences the precision of fixing the dates of new star appearance.
The so-called human factor could also influence it. F. U. Zigel writes the following about the circumstances of opening the supernova star of the year 1572 (supernova star Tiho Brage):

Having returned to Denmark in 1570 Tiho took interest in alchemy and seemed to have forgotten about astronomy. But a sudden sky phenomenon made him to devote his life to stars. In November 1572 in the constellation of Jupiter a new star flashed which reached the brightness of Jupiter.
(5, page 28)

A question arises. Could a person, so concentrated on other business, do systematical astronomic observations (especially such laborious as to check all the stars every night)? Quite doubtful. It is logical to suppose that in this case we have not an exact date. Dates of observations of supernova stars of earlier centuries, evidently, can have an even greater degree error.
Such a situation causes additional difficulties but there is nothing left but to work with this material. And now let us turn to the dissertation of L. N. Gumilev Ethnogenesis and Earths Biosphere.
One of the main topics of this work is held in the answer to the fol-lowing question: Why does such a phenomenon when that or this nation suddenly (in accordance to historical measures) becomes dominated among others and then disappears from history take place? What deter-mines the appearance of a great number of people- goal-oriented and able to bear extra-stresses, e.i. passionaries,- from people earlier being quite passive? What is the initial clause of passionary explosion?
I would like to point out one more very important statement in L. N. Gumilevs work, on which we shall concentrate in further investigation.
Gumilev defines ethnos as energetic phenomenon.

we have the right to define ethnos as an energetic phenomenon.
(1, page 393)
ethnogenesis is an energetic process, and passionarity is the effect of the form of energy which feeds ethnogenis.(1, page 387)

Gumilev speaks about ethnos as a field structure having its own rhythm, i.e. fluctuation frequency.

L. N. Gumilev defines period of ethnos life within 1200 1500 years.
While working with historical material L. N. Gumilev stated that the fact when one ethnos suddenly becomes dominated takes place not within one geographic sphere but looks like a continuous line spreading for thou-sands of kilometers.
Trying to define passionary drive L. N. Gumilev suggests a hypothesis on alien i.e. cosmic origin of ethnogenisis reason:
"Speaking about possible sources of passionary sources we have not re-jected just one hypothesis cosmic radiation. But at present level of knowledge on near space this hypothesis can not be strictly proved, but at the same time there are no fact contradicting it. (1, page 583)
When one examines areas of passionary explosions, than we have an impression that an Earth is surrounded by a ray, , and the spreading of passionary drive is limited by planets curve. (1, page 392)
Zones of passionary drive are narrow stripes, their width is about 300 km in latitude direction and somewhat broader in meridian direction, ap-proximately by 0,5 of Planets circumference. (1, page 412)
initial moments of ethnogeniscoincide in time and are situated in regions stretched along meridians or on parallels, or at an angle to them, but always as a continuous stripe.

One can clearly see on the map that axes of passionary drive resem-bles the trajectory of Moons shadow during central Sun darkening.
Trajectory of Moons shadow during Sun darkening has the width up to 300 km.
It is necessary to point out that not only appearance of these phenom-ena but also such a parameter as width coincides.
For further work we shall not need ethnogenesis explosion that took place in B. C. and that is why lets draw up a new map on which we shall mark the explosions happened from 1 till 13th centuries (in accordance to Skaligers chronology) and defined by L. N. Gumilev.

1. Passionary drive of 1 centure.
2. Passionary drive of 6 centure.
3. Passionary drive of 8 centure.
4. Passionary drive of 11 centure.
5. Passionary drive of 13 centure.


Используются технологии uCoz